The Sphinster of Oddi is a central gate to many liver, gallbladder and pancreas problems. Many scientists believe that the Sphinster of Oddi Dysfunction (SOD) is a culprit of the pancreas diseases and it is the common source of chronic pain after gallbladder removal.
Around the common bile duct, pancreatic duct and the duodenum wall there is a muscle valve called the Sphinster of Oddi. The Sphinster of Oddi, named after Ruggero Oddi, an Italian anatomist who discovered this structure in 1887. The Sphinster of Oddi controls moving of the bile from the liver, and gallbladder and pancreatic juice from the pancreas into the duodenum.
Normally, when semi digestive food moves from the stomach into the duodenum sphincter of Oddi opens. Large amount of the gallbladder bile and alkaline pancreatic juice is released to digest this food. When no food in the duodenum, sphincter of Oddi is closed so the bile from the liver is collected in the gallbladder.
Regulation of this complicated work is under control of nervous system and special blood messengers – digestive hormones. Stress, fasting, "harsh" liver cleansing, gallbladder removal, bad eating habits, alcohol, some medications, and recreation drugs badly influence in proper regulation and work of the sphincter of Oddi.